Regret Minimization

Regret especially when we can’t do anything about it is the worst that can happen. What is worse than being 80 and full of regrets. Because we all should strive to avoid that at any cost, there is a certain strategy we can take to make better life decisions.

I call it the Regret Minimization strategy which simply means doing the thing you will regret the least when you are 80. Now obviously we don’t know that in advance but we often can make a pretty good guess.

For the most part that means doing instead of not doing. We regret the things we never did much more than the things that we did and a failed at. Passivity is much more painful. Therefor once you identified something worth doing just do it. Rather fail than to live with the feeling it might have worked.

Habits and how to change them

1. The Cue: This is the trigger that launches you into “zombie mode.” The cue may be something as simple as seeing the first item on your to-do list (time to start next week’s homework!) or seeing a text message from a friend (time to dawdle!). A cue by itself is neither helpful nor harmful. It’s the routine—what we do in reaction to that cue—that matters.

2. The Routine: This is your zombie mode—the routine, habitual response your brain is used to falling into when it receives the cue. Zombie responses can be harmless, useful, or, in the worst case, so destructive that they defy common sense.

3. The Reward: Habits develop and continue because they reward us—give us a dollop of pleasure. Procrastination is an easy habit to develop because the reward—moving your mind’s focus to something more pleasant—happens so quickly. But good habits can also be rewarded. Finding ways to reward good study habits in math and science is vital to escaping procrastination.

4. The Belief: Habits have power because of your belief in them. For example, you might feel that you’ll never be able to change your habit of putting off your studies until late in the day. To change a habit, you’ll need to change your underlying belief.

Hab

How to change:
The only thing I can change:

The Cue: Recognize what launches you into your zombie, procrastination mode. Cues usually fall into one of the following categories: location, time, how you feel, reactions to other people, or something that just happened

 

I got this from the great book: A Mind for Numbers

 

Drive by Dan Pink // Motivation

The most crucial points of the book:
Motivation that come from the outside is never really lasting and effective, real motivation comes from within.
The three elements to true motivation:
1. Autonomy: People need to feel that they have some level of control over their enviroment. Give people a sense of control.
2. Mastery: People need to feel the possibility to improve, if there is no room for improvement no one will strive for it.
3. Purpose: Give people a good “Why” for doing something, frame it in their interests not in yours.

Only if all three elements are satisfied people are really motivated and happy to help you. But never forget, without giving something back no on will be motivated to help you for too long. Make sure to give back.

The Well-Being-Theory

Flourish by Martin Seligman // On Happiness

Short Summary of the Book: Flourish ny Seligman
According to the founder of positive psychology Martin Seligman there are five main elements of true well-being. 
Well-Being Theory:
1. Positive Emotions: This does not mean we have to be positive all the time but we should cultivate an overall positive outlook on life. Every time you feel yourself drifting into negativity try to disrupt is by arguing against it.
2. Engagement: Flow, the state in which we are fully engaged and focused at what we are doing while working on the edge of our abilities.
3. Meaning: A sense of a higher purpose for your life and the things you do.
4. Positive Relationships: Having the right kind of people around. Stay away from chronically negative complainers, they will steal your positivity.
5. Achievement: Winning makes us happy. Achievement for its own sake is also part of our well-being. Make sure that the game is winnable.
These are the main points of the book, for further details and more examples I recommend you read this book yourself.

The Subtle Art of not giving a Fuck, Book Notes

A suprisingly fantastic book I recently read. Here are my unedited notes

 

on it:

The Feedback Loop from Hell
Wanting positive experience is a negative experience; accepting negative experience is a positive experience.
Not giving a fuck works in reverse. If pursuing the positive is a negative, then pursuing the negative generates the positive. The pain you pursue in the gym results in better all-around health and energy
Being open with your insecurities paradoxically makes you more confident and charismatic around others.
avoidance of suffering is a form of suffering. The avoidance of struggle is a struggle. The denial of failure is a failure. Hiding what is shameful is itself a form of shame.
To not give a fuck is to stare down life’s most terrifying and difficult challenges and still take action.
The Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck
Subtlety #1: Not giving a fuck does not mean being indifferent; it means being comfortable with being different.
There’s absolutely nothing admirable or confident about indifference. People who are indifferent are lame and scared. They’re couch potatoes and Internet trolls
Because here’s another sneaky little truth about life. You can’t be an important and life-changing presence for some people without also being a joke and an embarrassment to others.
The Misadventures of Disappointment Panda
We suffer for the simple reason that suffering is biologically useful
Happiness comes from solving problems. The keyword here is “solving.” If you’re avoiding your problems or feel like you don’t have any problems, then you’re going to make yourself miserable
Happiness is therefore a form of action; it’s an activity, not something that is passively bestowed upon you
Emotions Are Overrated
if you feel crappy it’s because your brain is telling you that there’s a problem that’s unaddressed or unresolved. In other words, negative emotions are a call to action.
When you feel them, it’s because you’re supposed to do something.
Positive emotions, on the other hand, are rewards for taking the proper action
Choose Your Struggle
“What pain do you want in your life? What are you willing to struggle for?” Because that seems to be a greater determinant of how our lives turn out.
I wanted the reward and not the struggle. I wanted the result and not the process. I was in love with not the fight but only the victory. And life doesn’t work that way. Who you are is defined by what you’re willing to struggle for.
But a true and accurate measurement of one’s self-worth is how people feel about the negative aspects of themselves.
Entitled people exude a delusional degree of self-confidence
Things Fall Apart
It just means that you’re not special. Often, it’s this realization—that you and your problems are actually not privileged in their severity or pain—that is the first and most important step toward solving them.
The Tyranny of Exceptionalism entitlement
Is a western world epidemic. Every one thinks he is special, the next bill gates etc. while no one really is.
if everyone were extraordinary, then by definition no one would be extraordinary—is missed by most people
The rare people who do become truly exceptional at something do so not because they believe they’re exceptional. On the contrary, they become amazing because they’re obsessed with improvement. And that obsession with improvement stems from an unerring belief that they are, in fact, not that great at all. It’s anti-entitlement. People who become great at something become great because they understand that they’re not already great—they are mediocre, they are average—and that they could be so much better
The Self-Awareness Onion
the first layer of the self-awareness onion is a simple understanding of one’s emotions. “This is when I feel happy.” “This makes me feel sad.”
The second layer of the self-awareness onion is an ability to ask why we feel certain emotions
The third level is our personal values: Why do I consider this to be success/failure? How am I choosing to measure myself? By what standard am I judging myself and everyone around me? This level, which takes constant questioning and effort, is incredibly difficult to reach
Honest self-questioning is difficult. It requires asking yourself simple questions that are uncomfortable to answer. In fact, in my experience, the more uncomfortable the answer, the more likely it is to be true.
Take a moment and think of something that’s really bugging you. Now ask yourself why it bugs you. Chances are the answer will involve a failure of some sort. Then take that failure and ask why it seems “true” to you. What if that failure wasn’t really a failure? What if you’ve been looking at it the wrong way?
Rock Star Problems
Our values determine the metrics by which we measure ourselves and everyone else.
If you want to change how you see your problems, you have to change what you value and/or how you measure failure/success
Shitty Values
  1. Pleasure. Pleasure is great, but it’s a horrible value to prioritize your life around. Ask a man who almost ate himself to death how pleasure helped him solve his problems
  2. Material Success
  3. Always Being Right
  4. Staying Positive. Denying negative emotions leads to experiencing deeper and more prolonged negative emotions and to emotional dysfunction. Constant positivity is a form of avoidance, not a valid solution to life’s problems
Defining Good and Bad Values
Good values are 1) reality-based, 2) socially constructive, and 3) immediate and controllable. Bad values are 1) superstitious, 2) socially destructive, and 3) not immediate or controllable.
like: honesty, innovation, vulnerability, standing up for oneself, standing up for others, self-respect, curiosity, charity, humility, creativity.
Bad values are generally reliant on external events
This, in a nutshell, is what “self-improvement” is really about: prioritizing better values, choosing better things to give a fuck about. Because when you give better fucks, you get better problems. And when you get better problems, you get a better life.
 You Are Always Choosing
when you chose it freely and prepared for it, it was a glorious and important milestone in your life. When it was forced upon you against your will, it was one of the most terrifying and painful experiences of your life.
Often the only difference between a problem being painful or being powerful is a sense that we chose it, and that we are responsible for it.
The Choice
 
We don’t always control what happens to us. But we always control how we interpret what happens to us, as well as how we respond
The more we choose to accept responsibility in our lives, the more power we will exercise over our lives. Accepting responsibility for our problems is thus the first step to solving them
It might not be my fault but my reaction to it is my responseability
(What he didn’t realize was that he had chosen the value that was hurting him: height. Women, he assumed, are attracted only to height. He was screwed, no matter what he did.)
As you reassess your values, you will be met with internal and external resistance along the way.
 You’re Wrong About Everything (But So Am I)
Growth is an endlessly iterative process. When we learn something new, we don’t go from “wrong” to “right.” Rather, we go from wrong to slightly less wrong.
Our values are our hypotheses: this behavior is good and important; that other behavior is not. Our actions are the experiments; the resulting emotions and thought patterns are our data.
It’s easier to sit in a painful certainty that nobody would find you attractive, that nobody appreciates your talents, than to actually test those beliefs and find out for sure.
Certainty is the enemy of growth. Nothing is for certain until it has already happened—and even then, it’s still debatable.
Architects of Our Own Beliefs
Most of our beliefs are wrong. Or, to be more exact, all beliefs are wrong—some are just less wrong than others
tThe human mind is a jumble of inaccuracy. And while this may make you uncomfortable, it’s an incredibly important concept to accept,
Be Careful What You Believe
experiences is to interpret them in such a way that they will cohere with all of our previous experiences, feelings, and beliefs
our beliefs are malleable, and our memories are horribly unreliable.
If we’re all wrong, all the time, then isn’t self-skepticism and the rigorous challenging of our own beliefs and assumptions the only logical route to progress?
The Dangers of Pure Certainty
It’s the backwards law again: the more you try to be certain about something, the more uncertain and insecure you will feel.
But the converse is true as well: the more you embrace being uncertain and not knowing, the more comfortable you will feel in knowing what you don’t know.
Manson’s Law of Avoidance
The more something threatens your identity, the more you will avoid it
If I believe I’m a nice guy, I’ll avoid situations that could potentially contradict that belief
How to Be a Little Less Certain of Yourself:
Questioning ourselves and doubting our own thoughts and beliefs is one of the hardest skills to develop.
  1. Question #1: What if I’m wrong It’s worth remembering that for any change to happen in your life, you must be wrong about something
  2. Question #2: What would it mean if I were wrong?
  3. Question #3: Would being wrong create a better or a worse problem than my current problem, for both myself and others?
if it’s down to me being screwed up, or everybody else being screwed up, it is far, far, far more likely that I’m the one who’s screwed up. I have learned this from experience
That’s simply reality: if it feels like it’s you versus the world, chances are it’s really just you versus yourself.
The Failure/Success Paradox
Improvement at anything is based on thousands of tiny failures, and the magnitude of your success is based on how many times you’ve failed at something.
Better values, as we saw, are process-oriented. Something
Pain Is Part of the Process
pain is part of the process. It’s important to feel it. Because if you just chase after highs to cover up the pain, if you continue to indulge in entitlement and delusional positive thinking, if you continue to overindulge in various substances or activities, then you’ll never generate the requisite motivation to actually change.
Learn to sustain the pain you’ve chosen. When you choose a new value, you are choosing to introduce a new form of pain into your life
The “Do Something” Principle
If you’re stuck on a problem, don’t sit there and think about it; just start working on it. Even if you don’t know what you’re doing, the simple act of working on it will eventually cause the right ideas to show up in your head
Action isn’t just the effect of motivation; it’s also the cause of it.
Action → Inspiration → Motivation
Simply do something
 The Importance of Saying No
Ultimately, the only way to achieve meaning and a sense of importance in one’s life is through a rejection of alternatives, a narrowing of freedom, a choice of commitment to one place, one belief, or (gulp) one person.
Rejection Makes Your Life Better
The act of choosing a value for yourself requires rejecting alternative values.
Honesty is a natural human craving. But part of having honesty in our lives is becoming comfortable with saying and hearing the word “no.” In this way, rejection actually makes our relationships better and our emotional lives healthier Boundaries
The difference between a healthy and an unhealthy relationship comes down to two things: 1) how well each person in the relationship accepts responsibility, and 2) the willingness of each person to both reject and be rejected by their partner
In general, entitled people fall into one of two traps in their relationships. Either they expect other people to take responsibility for their problems
Or they take on too much responsibility for other people’s problems, victim and saver
Instead, victims and savers both use each other to achieve emotional highs. It’s like an addiction they fulfill in one another. Ironically, when presented with emotionally healthy people to date, they usually feel bored or lack “chemistry” with them.
 
How to Build Trust
Because honesty in my relationship is more important to me than feeling good all the time.
When our highest priority is to always make ourselves feel good, or to always make our partner feel good, then nobody ends up feeling good.
Freedom Through Commitment
Commitment gives you freedom because you’re no longer distracted by the unimportant and frivolous. Commitment gives you freedom because it hones your attention and focus, directing them toward what is most efficient at making you healthy and happy
The Choice Paradox = More Options make us go crazy. Less make us focused on them. Also I am a maximizer
death is the light by which the shadow of all of life’s meaning is measured. Without death, everything would feel inconsequential, all experience arbitrary, all metrics and values suddenly zero.
The Sunny Side of Death
You too are going to die, and that’s because you too were fortunate enough to have lived. You may not feel this there is nothing to be afraid of. Ever. And reminding myself of my own death repeatedly over the years—whether it be through meditation, through reading philosophy, or through doing crazy shit like standing on a cliff in South Africa

A Mind for Numbers, Book Notes

Here are my unedited notes on the book:

focused mode and diffuse mode , respectively—these modes are highly important for learning. 2 It seems you frequently switch back and forth between these two modes in your day-to-day activities

You’re in either one mode or the other.
Focused Mode = Deep Work.Turn your attention to something and bam —the focused mode is on
Diffuse Mode = Relax, take a step back. Diffuse-mode thinking is what happens when you relax your attention and just let your mind wander
Einstellung effect (pronounced EYE-nshtellung ). In this phenomenon, an idea you already have in mind, or your simple initial thought, prevents a better idea or solution from being found. I get stuck on the first idea and stop the search.
If you are trying to understand or figure out something new, your best bet is to turn off your precision-focused thinking and turn on your “big picture” diffuse mode
(But the learning process is all about working your way out of confusion. Articulating your question is 80 percent of the battle.)
By the time you’ve figured out what’s confusing, you’re likely to have answered the question yourself!”
The bottom line is that problem solving in any discipline often involves an exchange between the two fundamentally different modes. One mode will process the information it receives and then send the result back to the other mode
To figure out new ideas and solve problems, it’s important not only to focus initially, but also to subsequently turn our focus away from what we want to learn.
{ 3 } learning is creating
Once you are distracted from the problem at hand, the diffuse mode has access and can begin pinging about in its big-picture way to settle on a solution.
Step back from the Problem
Enlisting the diffuse mode helps you learn at a deep and creative level.
Mistakes are inevitable. To work past them, start early on your assignments and, unless you are really enjoying what you are doing, keep your working sessions short .
Remember, when you take breaks, your diffuse mode is still working away in the background
Sleep is probably the most effective and important factor in allowing your diffuse mode to tackle a difficult problem.
But the longer you spend in focused mode, the more mental resources you use = Willpower
General Diffuse-Mode Activators Go to the gym Play a sport like soccer or basketball Jog, walk, or swim Dance Go for a drive (or tag along for the ride) Draw or paint Take a bath or shower Listen to music, especially without words Play songs you know well on a musical instrument Meditate or pray Sleep (the ultimate diffuse mode!)
diffuse-mode activators are best used briefly, as rewards
The resting times between your focused-mode efforts should be long enough to get your conscious mind completely off the problem you’re working on
Usually a few hours is long enough for the diffuse mode to make significant progress but not so long that its insights fade away before being passed on to the focused mode. A good rule of thumb, when you are first learning new concepts, is not to let things go untouched for longer than a day.
Rising frustration is usually a good time-out
spaced repetition: Take some time between testing my knowledge
(simply being awake creates toxic products in your brain. During sleep, your cells shrink, causing a striking increase in the space between your cells. This is equivalent to turning on a faucet—it allows fluid to wash past and push the toxins out.)
procrastination is an issue, try setting a timer for twenty-five minutes and focusing –> set a time limit
What would you do if you weren’t afraid?” I try to look at this daily, and I aim to do something fearless every day.
Be willing to be disagreeable. There is a negative correlation between the level of creativity and “agreeableness,” so those who are the most disagreeable tend to be most creative
{ 4 } chunking and avoiding illusions of competence
Chunks are pieces of information that are bound together through meaning.
one of the first steps toward gaining expertise in math and science is to create conceptual chunks—mental leaps that unite separate bits of information through meaning
Basic Steps to Forming a Chunk:
Just memorizing a fact (center) without understanding or context doesn’t help you
Chunking (right) is the mental leap that helps you unite bits of information together through meaning.
1. The first step in chunking, then, is to simply focus your attention on the information you want to chunk .
2. The second step in chunking is to understand the basic idea you are trying to chunk,
3. The third step to chunking is gaining context so you see not just how, but also when to use this chunk. Context means going beyond the initial problem and seeing more broadly, repeating and practicing with both related and unrelated problems so you see not only when to use the chunk, but when not to use it.
Learning Tips:
Learn the major concepts or points first—these are often the key parts of a good instructor or book chapter’s outline, flow charts, tables, or concept maps. Once you have this done, fill in the details.
Attempting to recall the material you are trying to learn—retrieval practice—is far more effective than simply rereading the material
You may be surprised to learn that highlighting and underlining must be done carefully—otherwise they can be not only ineffective but also misleading.
When marking up the text, train yourself to look for main ideas before making any marks and keep your text markings to a minimum—one sentence or less per paragraph.
rewrite your notes
Merely glancing at the solution to a problem and thinking you truly know it yourself is one of the most common illusions of competence in learning.
the retrieval process itself enhances deep learning
Interleaving means practice by doing a mixture of different kinds of problems requiring different strategies. problems that require different techniques
Ask myself question to a book etc. is the best way to learn.

Creativity by Mihaly Csikszentmihaly, Book Notes

Here are my notes:

Without access to a domain, and without the support of a field, a person has no chance of recognition.
So the first step toward a more creative life is the cultivation of curiosity and interest, that is, the allocation of attention to things for their own sake.
Creative individuals are childlike in that their curiosity remains fresh even at ninety years of age; they delight in the strange and the unknown. And because there is no end to the unknown, their delight also is endless
Try to be surprised by something every day. It could be something you see, hear, or read about
Be open to what the world is telling you. Life is nothing more than a stream of experiences—the more widely and deeply you swim in it, the richer your life will be.
Try to surprise at least one person every day . Instead of being your predictable self, say something unexpected, express an opinion that you have not dared to reveal, ask a question you wouldn’t ordinarily ask. Or break the routine of your activities:
Write down each day what surprised you and how you surprised others to record each evening the most surprising event that happened that day and your most surprising action.
When something strikes a spark of interest, follow it .
Wake up in the morning with a specific goal to look forward to . Creative individuals don’t have to be dragged out of bed; they are eager to start the day discover at least one thing every day that is worth waking up for. Choose a particular task that, compared to the rest of the day, should be relatively interesting and exciting
On FLow:
If you do anything well, it becomes enjoyable
To keep enjoying something, you need to increase its complexity
Nor can you enjoy the same activity over and over, unless you discover new challenges, new opportunities in it. Otherwise it becomes boring
After creative energy is awakened, it is necessary to protect it. We must erect barriers against distractions, dig channels so that energy can flow more freely, find ways to escape outside temptations and interruptions.
What can you do to build up habits that will make it possible to control attention
  • Take charge of your schedule
  • Make time for reflection and relaxation. These are times when you should not expect any task to be done, any decision to be reached. You should just indulge in the luxury of reflection for its own sake. Combine these periods of reflection with some other task that requires a certain amount of attention, but not all of it. Preferably this should involve some physical or kinesthetic component. Creative individuals usually sleep longer and claim that if they cut down on sleeptime the originality of their ideas suffers
  • Find out what you like and what you hate about life. Creative people always know the reason for what they are doing, and they are very sensitive to pain, to boredom, to joy, to interest, and to other emotion.
    1. The first thing is to keep a careful record of what you did each day and how you felt about it.
    2. Start doing more of what you love, less of what you hate.
    3. Develop what you lack .
The point here is that everyone can strengthen the missing end of the polarity. When an extrovert learns to experience the world like an introvert, or vice versa, it is as if he or she discovered a whole missing dimension to the world that creative persons are able to integrate is being open and receptive on the one hand, and focused and hard-driving on the other
  • Aim for complexity
To do so we need to explore and strengthen those traits that are now lacking, to learn to shift from openness to discipline, within a context of curiosity and awe for the miracle of life.
They question the obvious—not out of contrariness but because they see the shortcomings of accepted explanations before the rest
Look at problems from as many viewpoints as possible .
How you define a problem usually carries with it an explanation of what caused it
A good way to learn problem finding in everyday life is to stop yourself when you sense you have a problem and give it the best shot at a formulation.
This happened because the boss dislikes me.” As soon as you do this, reverse the formulation : “It happened because I dislike the boss.”
Nevertheless, it is extremely important to identify the nature of the problem, because what you will do next depends on it. By naming the problem and attributing a cause to it you will shape not only the past but, more important, the future.
Figure out the implications of the problem . Once you have created a formulation, you can begin to entertain possible solutions.
Implement the solution . Solving problems creatively involves continuous experimentation and revision learn from the emerging work;
Produce as many ideas as possible
First, come up with as many options as you can think of
Have as many different ideas as possible . Quantity is important, but try to avoid redundancy.
Try to produce unlikely ideas .

Make it Stick by Peter Brown

Here are the general Notes to the book Make it Stick by Peter Brown, and here are the Principles to learn anything

Learning is deeper and more durable when it’s effortful. Learning that’s easy is like writing in sand, here today and gone tomorrow. We are poor judges of when we are learning well and when we’re not.

If you’re just engaging in mechanical repetition, it’s true, you quickly hit the limit of what you can keep in mind. However, if you practice elaboration, there’s no known limit to how much you can learn. Elaboration is the process of giving new material meaning by expressing it in your own words and connecting it with what you already know. The more you can explain about the way your new learning relates to your prior knowledge, the stronger your grasp of the new learning will be, and the more connections you create that will help you remember it later.

People who learn to extract the key ideas from new material and organize them into a mental model and connect that model to prior knowledge show an advantage in learning complex mastery. A mental model is a mental representation of some external reality.

Fallacies:

  • If they can make learning easier and faster, the learning will be better. Much research turns this belief on its head: when learning is harder, it’s stronger and lasts longer!
  • What is learned through repetition only lasts shortly.
  • Rereading has three strikes against it. It is time consuming. It doesn’t result in durable memory. And it often involves a kind of unwitting self-deception, as growing familiarity with the text comes to feel like mastery of the content. Rising familiarity with a text and fluency in reading it can create an illusion of mastery.

Learning is stronger when it matters, when the abstract is made concrete and personal! Apply what you read about to your life.

Mastery requires both the possession of ready knowledge and the conceptual understanding of how to use it.

One of the most striking research findings is the power of active retrieval—testing—to strengthen memory, and that the more effortful the retrieval, the stronger the benefit. Think quiz versus rereading. The act of retrieving learning from memory has two profound benefits. One, it tells you what you know and don’t know, and therefore where to focus further  improve the areas where you’re weak. Two, recalling what you have learned causes your brain to reconsolidate the memory, which strengthens its connections to what you already know and makes it easier for you to recall in the future. In effect, retrieval—testing—interrupts forgetting.

 Chapter Summaries:
  1. Chapter: Effortful learning changes the brain, building new connections and capability. This single fact—that our intellectual abilities are not fixed from birth but are, to a considerable degree, ours to shape—is a resounding answer to the nagging voice that too often asks us “Why bother?” We make the effort because the effort itself extends the boundaries of our abilities.
  2. Chapter: Sometimes the most powerful feedback for calibrating your sense of what you do and don’t know are the mistakes you make in the field, assuming you survive them and are receptive to the lesson.
  3. Chapter: Structure is all around us and available to us through the poet’s medium of metaphor. A tree, with its roots, trunk, and branches. A river. A village, encompassing streets and blocks, houses and stores and offices. The structure of the village explains how these elements are interconnected so that the village has a life and a significance that would not exist if these elements were scattered randomly across an empty landscape. By abstracting the underlying rules and piecing them into a structure, you go for more than knowledge. You go for knowhow. And that kind of mastery will put you ahead.
  4. Chapter: Learning is at least a three-step process:
    1. initial encoding of information is held in short-term working memory before being consolidated into a cohesive representation of knowledge in long-term memory.
    2. Consolidation reorganizes and stabilizes memory traces, gives them meaning, and makes connections to past experiences and to other knowledge already stored in long-term memory.
    3. Retrieval updates learning and enables you to apply it when you need it. Retrieval practice that’s easy does little to strengthen learning; the more difficult the practice, the greater the benefit.
    4. Learning always builds on a store of prior knowledge. We interpret and remember events by building connections to what we already know. Long-term memory capacity is virtually limitless: the more you know, the more possible connections you have for adding new knowledge.
    5. Trying to come up with an answer rather than having it presented to you, or trying to solve a problem before being shown the solution, leads to better learning and longer retention of the correct answer or solution, even when your attempted response is wrong, so long as corrective feedback is provided.
  5. Chapter: interweaving two or more subjects during practice also provides a form of spacing. interweaving can also help you develop your ability to discriminate later between different kinds of problems and select the right tool from your growing toolkit of solutions. In interweaving, you don’t move from a complete practice set of one topic to go to another. You switch before each practice is complete.

The Most Effective Ways to Study !

I recently read the book Make it Stick by Peter C. Brown  which is about strategies that actually work for learning, these are  applicable not only for students but for everybody that want’s to learn anything new. These are for the most part direct quotes from the book!

Strategies:

1.Practice Retrieving New Learning from Memory:
“Retrieval practice” means self-quizzing. Retrieving knowledge and skill from memory should become your primary study strategy in place of rereading. How to use retrieval practice as a study strategy: When you read a text or study lecture notes, pause periodically to ask yourself questions like these, without looking in the text: What are the key ideas? What terms or ideas are new to me? How would I define them? How do the ideas relate to what I already know?

Generating questions for yourself and writing down the answers is also a good way to study. Set aside a little time every week throughout the semester to quiz yourself on the material in a course, both the current week’s work and material covered in prior weeks. When you quiz yourself, check your answers to make sure that your judgments of what you know and don’t know are accurate. Use quizzing to identify areas of weak mastery, and focus your studying to make them strong.

The harder it is for you to recall new learning from memory, the greater the benefit of doing so. But what you don’t sense when you’re struggling to retrieve new learning is the fact that every time you work hard to recall a memory, you actually strengthen it.

2.Space Out Your Retrieval Practice
Spaced practice means studying information more than once but leaving considerable time between practice sessions. How to use spaced practice as a study strategy: Establish a schedule of self-quizzing that allows time to elapse between study sessions. How much time? It depends on the material. If you are learning a set of names and faces, you will need to review them within a few minutes of your first encounter, because these associations are forgotten quickly. New material in a text may need to be revisited within a day.

3.Interleave the Study of Different Problem Types
What does this mean? If you’re trying to learn mathematical formulas, study more than one type at a time, so that you are alternating between different problems that call for different solutions.

Mix in the practice of other subjects, other skills, constantly challenging your ability to recognize the problem type and select the right solution.

4.ELABORATION

Elaboration is the process of finding additional layers of meaning in new material. For instance: Examples include relating the material to what you already know, explaining it to somebody else in your own words, or explaining how it relates to your life outside of class. A powerful form of elaboration is to discover a metaphor or visual image for the new material. For example, to better grasp the principles of angular momentum in physics, visualize how a figure skater’s rotation speeds up as her arms are drawn into her body.

5.GENERATION
Generation is an attempt to answer a question or solve a problem before being shown the answer or the solution. For instance: On a small level, the act of filling in a missing word in a text (that is, generating the word yourself rather than having it supplied by the writer) results in better learning and memory of the text than simply reading a complete text.

Many people perceive their learning is most effective when it is experiential—that is, learning by doing rather than by reading a text or hearing a lecture.

6. REFLECTION
is a combination of retrieval practice and elaboration that adds layers to learning and strengthens skills. What is it? Reflection is the act of taking a few minutes to review what has been learned in a recent class or experience and asking yourself questions. What went well? What could have gone better? What other knowledge or experiences does it remind you of?

7. CALIBRATION
is the act of aligning your judgments of what you know and don’t know with objective feedback so as to avoid being carried off by the illusions.

Calibration is simply the act of using an objective instrument to clear away illusions and adjust your judgment to better reflect reality. The aim is to be sure that your sense of what you know and can do is accurate.

 

I highly recommend reading this book if you are serious about learning something new from books specifically. You can buy it here.

Lessons from Jim Rohn: My Philosophy for Successful Living

Jim Rohn is a Personal Development legend, from which I and millions of others have learned a lot. Here I will share some of the lessons I learned by consuming his materials. I highly recommend listening to some of his programs on YouTube just type in his name it will be worth your time. I found this talk to be the best.

From the book “My Philosophy for Successful Living“:
  • You will be paid for what you bring to the marketplace, and number two you get paid for what you become. It is all about bringing the right goods to the marketplace.
  • “Formal education gets you a job, but self-education is what makes you rich!”
  • “If you work hard on your job, you make a living. If you work hard on yourself, you can make a fortune. Invest in yourself, invest in your own self-education and then take that knowledge and use it to help others get what they want and need out of life. In the process, you will acquire power and financial freedom for yourself.”
  • “Success is something that you attract by becoming an attractive person.”
  • Invest your money and spend what is left
  • Next take the time to learn the skill of communication. Becoming a skilled communicator is one of the single best investments you can make in yourself.
  • “Wages will make you a living, but profits will make you a fortune.”
  • Have a guidance system of things that you will and will not do, people you will associate with and that you will not associate with…
  • You simply can’t experience everything recognize the experiences, the successes and failures of others can help you achieve what you want in life.
  • What really matters in Life:
    1. To be productive.
    2. To value relationships
    3. Build an inner circle of people
    4. Plant the Seeds for the future, invest in your future.
  • “You’re the only problem you’ll ever have and you’re the only solution you will ever have”